What are the health benefits of bodybuilding?

Exercise is an effective method for weight management, disease prevention, and maintenance of several physiological parameters, including improving insulin resistance and obesity-induced risk factors in individuals normal “healthy” and obese.

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What is bodybuilding?

Regular physical activity can be defined as the movement of the body produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles which increases energy expenditure.

Strength training is a form of resistance exercise that refers to any form of exercise where the participant lifts or pulls against resistance. This form of training includes weightlifting and is performed to improve muscle strength, size, or endurance.

Several meta-analyses have shown a significant effect of endurance and strength training on anthropometric (related to measurements and proportions) and cardiometabolic parameters. These include evidence supporting the role of strength training in altering body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass (FM), improving lipid profile, lowering glucose, insulin levels and blood pressure (BP).

Effect of strength training on glucose and insulin homeostasis

Physical activity has been shown to improve glucose on insulin tolerance due to increased glucose uptake by muscle mass. Additionally, components of glucose metabolism such as insulin protein receptor density and key enzymes involved in glucose metabolism are positively adjusted.

Although strength training alone is known to exert positive effects on insulin metabolism, one study reported that combined training, consisting of endurance training and resistance training (weight ), results in greater improvement in insulin sensitivity, b-cell function, and glucose efficiency compared to endurance or strength training alone. Quantitatively, a 52% improvement in insulin sensitivity was observed by this combination training, which was maintained over two weeks after the last training session.

Bodybuilding and cardiovascular diseases

Several studies have found an inverse relationship between strength training and heart disease. A 2017 study published in Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise (MSSE) found that among 35,000 women, those who exercised resistance reduced their risk of developing type 2 diabetes by 30% compared to those who did not. not.

Meanwhile, women who engaged in any form of resistance training reduced their risk of cardiovascular disease by 17%. A similar 2019 study also published in MSSE demonstrated that strength training was associated with decreased cardiovascular disease, including strokes, strokes, and increased longevity. In this study, approximately 13,000 people performing resistance training for less than an hour per week were found to reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality by 40-70%.

Additionally, a study published in JAMA Cardiology concluded that strength training in obese sedentary adults led to a decrease in pericardial adipose tissue (a form of tissue deposition surrounding the heart; and the form correlated with heart disease and stroke cerebrovascular diseases) by 32%. This only happened in the group that performed strength exercises, not in the group that performed aerobic exercises. However, both groups experienced a decrease in epicardial adipose tissue, the other form of fat deposition surrounding the heart.

The effect of bodybuilding on cancer

Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, accounting for approximately 14 million new cases and 9.6 million cancer-related deaths worldwide. Data from the England Health Survey, which surveyed 80,000 adults over the age of 30, showed that adhering to resistance exercise at least twice a week was associated with a reduced risk of death by cancer of 34%.

This effect was not seen in adults who adhered to aerobic training. Additionally, cancer survivors who regularly performed resistance training (at least once a week) showed a 33% reduction in all-cause mortality. Although the studies are observational and causality cannot be determined, they support the idea that resistance training performance can reduce cancer risk and cancer recurrence.

Resistance training through resistance training has also been shown to reduce the side effects associated with cancer treatment. The most common treatment approaches include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and androgen therapy for prostate cancer.

These increase the loss of skeletal muscle mass, with a subsequent decrease in strength in patients. In addition, these changes also have negative outcomes for clinical endpoints including cancer mortality, disease progression, and complications resulting from treatment, i.e., dose-limiting toxicity.

According to a study published in 2010, resistance exercise training that engages the whole body can preserve muscle mass in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy or radiation therapy.

Additionally, data from a supervised aerobic resistance training (START) trial demonstrated that progressive full-body resistance training (three sets at 60-70% of one repetition max) improved strength, fatigue, lean body mass and chemotherapy completion rate in breast cancer survivors undergoing adjuvant therapy.

There was no difference in those doing aerobic training or usual care. These findings were corroborated in a recent meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials in which 1167 participants receiving treatment for a range of cancers demonstrated improvements in lean body mass, strength, and body fat when they regularly did resistance training.

Regular physical activity in the form of resistance/weight-based training can prevent or reduce the risk of many age-related diseases. There is some understanding of the molecular basis that underlies the health benefits of exercise and demonstrates that strength training is a powerful countermeasure against declining mobility, metabolism, physiology and mortality.

The references:

  • Christensen RH, Wedell-Neergaard A, Lehrskov LL, et al. (2019) Effect of aerobic and resistance exercise on cardiac adipose tissue: secondary analyzes from a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Cardiol. doi:10.1001/jamacardio.2019.2074.
  • Liu Y, Lee DC, Li Y, Zhu W, et al. (2019) Associations of resistance exercise with cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Medical-scientific sports exercise. doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001822.
  • Shiroma EJ, Cook NR, Manson JE, et al. (2017) Strength Training and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease. Medical-scientific sports exercise. doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000001063.
  • Kirwan JP, Sacks J, Nieuwoudt S. (2017) The essential role of exercise in the management of type 2 diabetes. Cleve Clin J Med. doi:10.3949/ccjm.84.s1.03.
  • Stamatakis E, Lee LM. Bennie J, et al. (2018). Does strength-promoting exercise confer unique health benefits? A pooled analysis of data on 11 population cohorts with endpoints of all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality. Am J Epidemiol. doi:10.1093/aje/kwx345.
  • Cormie P, Zopf EM, Zhang X, et al. (2017) The impact of exercise on cancer mortality, recurrence and treatment-related adverse events. Epidemiol Rev. doi: 10.1093/epirev/mxx007.
  • Ruiz JR, Sui X, Lobelo F, et al. (2009) Muscle strength and adiposity as predictors of adult cancer mortality in men. Biomarkers of cancer epidemiol Prev. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.
  • Galvão DA, Taaffe DR, Spry N, et al. (2010) Combined resistance and aerobic exercise program reverses muscle loss in men undergoing androgen suppression therapy for prostate cancer without bone metastases: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.23.2488.

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